Abstract In this paper, the construction industry in China since the implementation of the supervision system to the current situation and difficulties faced, explore the various reasons, and from the practice of supervision of construction work on the standardization of China put forward their own views.
1 Supervision of the present situation and the environment faced by
Supervision of construction projects undertaken in nearly ten years, due to the construction industry for many years entrenched ways of thinking and practice, making the implementation of supervision in accordance with international practice, the system is not perfect. Supervision of the conduct in this area has been stagnant deep, also resulted in the development of China's construction market is not standardized, unhealthy. Supervision of the present situation and problems due to environment, mainly in the following areas:
(1) most of the current construction projects are not the whole process of supervision, but only limited supervision of the construction phase of the project.
(2) in the supervision system, the three elements of "quality, investment and progress," control, the actual work is only to stay in quality control, and investment, the progress of the majority is a form of control, many still remain in the talk by the project owner count of the stage, did not reflect the impartiality of the Commissioner.
(3) in the supervision system implementation process, supervision of construction projects should have the necessary authority. Dan in China can not fully exercise their supervisory powers of supervision in accordance with criteria for issuing the important directives (Ru suspension order, resumption of work order, etc.) Since the parties failed to implement Zhixing Ganrao last.
(4) construction projects, due to conservative ideas, some owners can not straighten their position on the supervisory responsibilities under the contract does not actively perform, such as: do not pay the supervision fee under the contract on time, can not provide office space for the supervision and work facilities.
(5) As the construction market, increasing competition, the supervision and project supervision units to obtain competing to keep the prices down, causing the market cycle. Management remuneration is low, affecting the work of supervision engineer's enthusiasm and sense of responsibility.
2.1 The project owner has not changed the old concept of form drag on the supervision system to promote
Engineering Project Management System in accordance with international practice, project owners, contractors, construction supervision units form a mainstay of the market, they are each equal trimers, there is no affiliation between each other, nor is the relationship between employment and be employed. However, due to the current competitive construction market, demand exceeds supply, and the bidding system is not perfect, the owners seem, his supervision units and contractors are hired, and should listen to his command. Therefore, the supervision will often be the owners of interference and obstruction. In our previous supervisory experience in a project once it two things: a construction unit in the pouring of concrete, the surface structure with local anesthesia occurred, supervisors, after careful observation, that Ma face is partial, superficial, do not need special treatment.
Can make up for the course of follow-up of plaster, while the on-site owners on behalf of the lack of engineering experience, too much emphasis on project quality, the need to rework deal with, and unauthorized construction units work to make rectification order, both the delay time, increased construction unit costs unnecessarily. Another thing is the construction unit in the reinforced concrete construction process, there is no implementation of the process inspection system, reinforced by the supervisors did not verify the check and acceptance, but also did not get the concrete poured to make the case to unauthorized pouring of concrete, supervisors discovered , immediately issued a stop work order and request construction unit rework, but the owners to drive progress, strongly disagree supervisors views, resulting in orders can not be implemented. The opposite surface, these two things, but in fact the owners are not properly position itself, ultra vires the command, so that supervision can not be normal. Although some owners to control their investments to the supervising engineer, but it is only a superficial, when the progress of the project supervising engineer visa section of the certificate, the owner does not pay on time and quantity, resulting in supervising engineer on the project investment can not be effective control, also makes the schedule control has become empty talk. This is the "Three control" into "one control" of the main reasons.
2.2 Supervision needs to further improve the formulation of laws and regulations
Supervising engineer services for the owners, and owners have the authority and the commission before engaging in supervision. Thus, supervisors can easily be subject to the owners. When owners and contractors in the project implementation disputes, supervising engineer shall be subject to third-party standing in the position of Commissioner of the Code, the fair treatment of both disputes. In China, the current "standard of construction supervision of the commission contract terms," it does not confer the power of supervision engineer should therefore be able to manage this very difficult. For example, the "standard of construction supervision commission contract terms" Article 16 (2) provides: Release Management Engineer start order, suspension order, return to work order by the owner's consent to. This limits the independence of the work supervision engineer, will not be able to deal justly with the owners and contractors of the dispute. In the real work, will often see this phenomenon: As the work of upholding the principles of supervision engineers, and sometimes there was a deadlock on the make supervision; or just listen to the owners of the supervising engineer, and also allows supervision to lose impartiality.
2.3 Supervision Unit their own problems
Supervisors their quality is not high. As the current market standard in supervision, and supervision of low remuneration, supervision can not attract high-quality technical expertise, personnel engaged in supervision. Therefore, the supervisors presented the organizational structure of polarization: one is from the construction, design units are older retired from the engineering and technical personnel. These people have a certain theoretical and practical experience, but lack practical experience in project supervision. The other part is just and colleges allocated to the graduates. That some people experience worse. Some supervisors discipline loose, or even use work will take, take, to greatly damaged the reputation of the profession supervision. Although the nominal supervision units have a number of levels of qualification certificate and business license, but not their regular employees, do not possess the qualifications in supervision. Made task on a few people on the provisional Minato, mission was over, staff on the dissolution, not to mention conduct standardized supervision.
3 on the standard supervision Suggestions
3.1 The project owner to change the old ideas, and project owners to conduct the necessary constraints and norms
(1) The Government should be representatives of the owner or owners induction training. Analysis from the front, we can see the behavior of the owners is the impact of supervision carried out important factors. Supervision can be carried out smoothly, the key is whether there is a good quality of the owners. This is mainly because the owner holds a lot of construction activity in the decision-making power, but no corresponding rules and regulations binding. Supervisory personnel engaged in supervision, to have the certificate of supervision engineer positions, and the owners of the site owners or representatives of accredited project management do not need any certificate. They may not understand the procedures and working methods of supervision, technical expertise or do not know, but can use their power, subjectivity. The solution is to allow owners to learn the relevant state policies and regulations, learn the professional technical knowledge, and obtain the corresponding positions certificate to apply for construction permits and other relevant written procedures.
(2) to strengthen government enforcement inspection and supervision. Projects in accordance with international practice management system, the administrative department of the government building to the owners, contractors and supervision units and supervision of construction activities. But in fact, carry out the work in this area is relatively weak, causing some owners of irregularities or unreasonable demands in limbo, unable to correct the situation. Therefore, we should strengthen the government departments of law enforcement inspection and supervision and management, there is need for criticism and education through administrative penalties and other means, stipulating that the owners of 涓?irregularities.
3.2 to further modify and improve the supervision and regulations
The current supervision, the supervising engineer is difficult to play a role in contract management, mainly due to the existing legislation does not empower the Commissioner of supervision engineer should have power.鍥藉鐨勩?FIDIC 鍦熸湪宸ョ▼鏂藉伐鍚堝悓鏉′欢銆嬬殑绐佸嚭鐗圭偣鏄紝鍦ㄤ紬澶氭潯娆惧唴灏嗙鐞嗙殑鏉冨姏璧嬩簣浜嗙洃鐞嗗伐绋嬪笀銆傛瘮濡傦紝鍦ㄨ繘搴︽帶鍒舵柟闈紝鐩戠悊宸ョ▼甯堝彂甯冪殑寮?伐浠ゃ?鍋滃伐浠ゃ?澶嶅伐浠や笉闇?缁忚繃涓氫富鐨勫悓鎰忋?
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